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## Aligning equations with amsmath

- 1 Introduction
- 2 Writing a single equation
- 3 Displaying long equations
- 4 Splitting and aligning an equation
- 5 Aligning several equations
- 6 Grouping and centering equations
- 7 Further reading

## Introduction

The amsmath package provides a handful of options for displaying equations. You can choose the layout that better suits your document, even if the equations are really long, or if you have to include several equations in the same line.

The standard LaTeX tools for equations may lack some flexibility, causing overlapping or even trimming part of the equation when it's too long. We can surpass such difficulties by using the amsmath package, which can be added to preamble of your document using \usepackage{amsmath} .

Let's start with a basic example:

Open this amsmath fragment in Overleaf

The following graphic shows the output produced by the LaTeX code:

You have to wrap your equation in the equation environment if you want it to be numbered, use equation* (with an asterisk) otherwise. Inside the equation environment, use the split environment to split the equations into smaller pieces, these smaller pieces will be aligned accordingly. The double backslash works as a newline character. Use the ampersand character & , to set the points where the equations are vertically aligned.

## Writing a single equation

To display a single equation, as mentioned in the introduction, you have to use the equation* or equation environment, depending on whether you want the equation to be numbered or not. Additionally, you might add a label for future reference within the document.

You can also open a more complete example of the amsmath package in Overleaf.

## Displaying long equations

For equations longer than a line use the multline environment. Insert a double backslash to set a point for the equation to be broken. The first part will be aligned to the left and the second part will be displayed in the next line and aligned to the right.

Again, the use of an asterisk * in the environment name determines whether the equation is numbered or not.

Open this multiline equation amsmath fragment in Overleaf

## Splitting and aligning an equation

Split is very similar to multline . Use the split environment to break an equation and to align it in columns, just as if the parts of the equation were in a table. This environment must be used inside an equation environment. For an example check the introduction of this document.

## Aligning several equations

If there are several equations that you need to align vertically, the align environment will do it:

Usually the binary operators ( > , < and = ) are the ones aligned for a nice-looking document.

As mentioned before, the ampersand character & determines where the equations align. Let's check a more complex example:

Here we arrange the equations in three columns. LaTeX assumes that each equation consists of two parts separated by an & and that each equation is separated from the one before by an & .

Again, use * to toggle the equation numbering. When numbering is allowed, you can label each row individually.

## Grouping and centering equations

If you just need to display a set of consecutive equations, centered and with no alignment whatsoever, use the gather environment. The asterisk trick to set/unset the numbering of equations also works here.

## Further reading

For more information see

- Mathematical expressions
- Brackets and Parentheses
- Subscripts and superscripts
- Spacing in math mode
- Display style in math mode
- Mathematical fonts
- List of Greek letters and math symbols
- Fractions and Binomials
- amsmath package documentation
- Documentation Home
- Learn LaTeX in 30 minutes

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## LaTeX Basics

- Creating your first LaTeX document
- Choosing a LaTeX Compiler
- Paragraphs and new lines
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## Mathematics

- Aligning equations
- Integrals, sums and limits
- Using the Symbol Palette in Overleaf

## Figures and tables

- Inserting Images
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- Lists of Tables and Figures
- Drawing Diagrams Directly in LaTeX
- TikZ package

## References and Citations

- Bibliography management with bibtex
- Bibliography management with natbib
- Bibliography management with biblatex
- Bibtex bibliography styles
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## Document structure

- Sections and chapters
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## Class files

- Understanding packages and class files
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## Advanced TeX/LaTeX

- In-depth technical articles on TeX/LaTeX

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## \phantom & \vphantom & \hphantom

The \phantom command creates a box with the same height, depth, and width as subformula , but empty. That is, this command causes LaTeX to typeset the box but not its ink. The \vphantom variant also produces an invisible box with the same height and depth as subformula , but it has width zero. And \hphantom makes a box with the same width as subformula but with height and depth zero.

Without the \vphantom in this example, the top bars of the two square roots would be at different heights.

The \vphantom{a^3} causes the first \sqrt to have inside it a box of the same height as the second \sqrt , so LaTeX makes the bars align.

These commands often are combined with \smash . See \smash , for another example of the use of \vphantom .

The three phantom commands appear often but note that LaTeX provides a suite of other commands to work with box sizes that may be more convenient, including \makebox (see \mbox & \makebox ) as well as \settodepth (see \settodepth ), \settoheight (see \settoheight ), and \settowidth (see \settowidth ). In addition, the mathtools package has many commands that offer fine-grained control over spacing.

All three commands produce an ordinary box, without any special mathematics status. So to do something like attaching a superscript you should give it such a status, for example with the \operatorname command from the package amsmath .

While most often used in mathematics, these three can appear in other contexts. However, they don’t cause LaTeX to change into horizontal mode. So if one of these starts a paragraph then you should prefix it with \leavevmode .

© 2007–2018 Karl Berry Public Domain Software http://latexref.xyz/_005cphantom-_0026-_005cvphantom-_0026-_005chphantom.html

## \phantom & \vphantom & \hphantom

The \phantom command creates a box with the same height, depth, and width as subformula , but empty. That is, this command causes LaTeX to typeset the box but not its ink. The \vphantom variant also produces an invisible box with the same height and depth as subformula , but it has width zero. And \hphantom makes a box with the same width as subformula but with height and depth zero.

Without the \vphantom in this example, the top bars of the two square roots would be at different heights.

The \vphantom{a^3} causes the first \sqrt to have inside it a box of the same height as the second \sqrt , so LaTeX makes the bars align.

These commands often are combined with \smash . See \smash , for another example of the use of \vphantom .

The three phantom commands appear often but note that LaTeX provides a suite of other commands to work with box sizes that may be more convenient, including \makebox (see \mbox & \makebox ) as well as \settodepth (see \settodepth ), \settoheight (see \settoheight ), and \settowidth (see \settowidth ). In addition, the mathtools package has many commands that offer fine-grained control over spacing.

All three commands produce an ordinary box, without any special mathematics status. So to do something like attaching a superscript you should give it such a status, for example with the \operatorname command from the package amsmath .

While most often used in mathematics, these three can appear in other contexts. However, they don’t cause LaTeX to change into horizontal mode. So if one of these starts a paragraph then you should prefix it with \leavevmode .

© 2007–2018 Karl Berry Public Domain Software http://latexref.xyz/_005cphantom-_0026-_005cvphantom-_0026-_005chphantom.html

## LaTeX-Tutorial.com

Latex math and equations, learn to typeset and align equations, matrices and fractions in latex. overview of basic math features, with live-rendering..

- Inline math
- Scaling of Parentheses, Brackets etc.

There are two major modes of typesetting math in LaTeX one is embedding the math directly into your text by encapsulating your formula in dollar signs and the other is using a predefined math environment. You can follow along and try the code in your computer or online using overleaf. I also prepared a quick reference of math symbols .

## Using inline math – embed formulas in your text

To make use of the inline math feature, simply write your text and if you need to typeset a single math symbol or formula, surround it with dollar signs:

Output equation: \(\text{This formula }f(x) = x^2\text{ is an example.}\)

## The equation and align environment

The most useful math envorinments are the equation environment for typesetting single equations and the align environment for multiple equations and automatic alignment:

Output Equation: \(\begin{equation}1 + 2 = 3\end{equation}\) \(\begin{equation}1 = 3 – 2\end{equation}\) Output Align: \(\begin{align} 1 + 2 & = 3\\ 1 & = 3 – 2 \end{align}\)

The align environment will align the equations at the ampersand & . Single equations have to be seperated by a linebreak \\ . There is no alignment when using the simple equation environment. Furthermore it is not even possible to enter two equations in that environment, it will result in a compilation error . The asterisk (e.g. equation*) only indicates, that I don’t want the equations to be numbered.

## Fractions and more

LaTeX is capable of displaying any mathematical notation. It’s possible to typeset integrals, fractions and more. Every command has a specific syntax to use. I will demonstrate some of the most common LaTeX math features:

Output: \(\begin{align*} f(x) &= x^2\\ g(x) &= \frac{1}{x}\\ F(x) &= \int^a_b \frac{1}{3}x^3 \end{align*}\)

It is also possible to combine various commands to create more sophisticated expressions such as:

Output: \(\frac{1}{\sqrt{x}}\)

The more complex the expression, the more error prone this is, it’s important to take care of opening and closing the braces {} . It can take a long time to debug such errors. The Lyx program offers a great formula editor, which can ease this work a bit. Personally, I write all code by hand though, since it’s faster than messing around with the formula editor.

Furthermore it’s possible to display matrices in LaTeX. There is a special matrix environment for this purpose, please keep in mind that the matrices only work within math environments as described above :

Output: \(\begin{matrix} 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1 \end{matrix}\)

## Brackets in math mode – Scaling

To surround the matrix by brackets, it’s necessary to use special statements, because the plain [ ] symbols do not scale as the matrix grows. The following code will result in wrong brackets:

Output: \([ \begin{matrix} 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1 \end{matrix} ]\)

To scale them up, we must use the following code:

Output: \( \left[ \begin{matrix} 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1 \end{matrix} \right] \)

This does also work for parentheses and braces and is not limited to matrices. It can be used to scale for fractions and other expressions as well:

Output: \(\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{x}}\right)\)

- LaTeX is a powerful tool to typeset math
- Embed formulas in your text by surrounding them with dollar signs $
- The equation environment is used to typeset one formula
- The align environment will align formulas at the ampersand & symbol
- Single formulas must be seperated with two backslashes \\
- Use the matrix environment to typeset matrices
- Scale parentheses with \left( \right) automatically
- All mathematical expressions have a unique command with unique syntax
- \int^a_b for integral symbol
- \frac{u}{v} for fractions
- \sqrt{x} for square roots
- Characters for the greek alphabet and other mathematical symbols such as \lambda

Next Lesson: 05 Figures

- Tex Commands Reference
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- \, \:, \>, \;
- \abovewithdelims
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- \backepsilon
- \Bigg, \bigg, \Big, \big
- \bigtriangledown
- \bigtriangleup
- \blacklozenge
- \blacksquare
- \blacktriangle
- \blacktriangledown
- \blacktriangleleft
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- \buildrel ... \over ...
- \circlearrowleft
- \circlearrowright
- \circledast
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- \complement
- \curlyeqprec
- \curlyeqsucc
- \curlywedge
- \curvearrowleft
- \curvearrowright
- \dashleftarrow
- \dashrightarrow
- \DeclareMathOperator
- \diamondsuit
- \displaylines
- \displaystyle
- \divideontimes
- \doublebarwedge
- \downdownarrows
- \downharpoonleft
- \downharpoonright
- \eqslantgtr
- \eqslantless
- \fallingdotseq
- \gtreqqless
- \hookleftarrow
- \hookrightarrow
- \leftarrowtail
- \leftharpoondown
- \leftharpoonup
- \leftleftarrows
- \leftrightarrow
- \Leftrightarrow
- \leftrightarrows
- \leftrightharpoons
- \leftrightsquigarrow
- \leftthreetimes
- \lessapprox
- \lesseqqgtr
- \Lleftarrow
- \lmoustache
- \longleftarrow
- \Longleftarrow
- \longrightarrow
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- \longleftrightarrow
- \Longleftrightarrow
- \longmapsto
- \looparrowleft
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- \newcommand
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- \nleftarrow
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- \nleftrightarrow
- \nLeftrightarrow
- \nobreakspace
- \normalsize
- \nrightarrow
- \nRightarrow
- \nshortparallel
- \nsubseteqq
- \nsupseteqq
- \ntriangleleft
- \ntrianglelefteq
- \ntriangleright
- \ntrianglerighteq
- \operatorname
- \overleftarrow
- \overrightarrow
- \overleftrightarrow
- \overwithdelims
- \precapprox
- \precnapprox
- \preccurlyeq
- \restriction
- \rightarrow
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- \rightarrowtail
- \rightharpoondown
- \rightharpoonup
- \rightleftarrows
- \rightleftharpoons
- \rightrightarrows
- \rightsquigarrow
- \rightthreetimes
- \risingdotseq
- \rmoustache
- \root ... \of
- \Rrightarrow
- \scriptscriptstyle
- \scriptsize
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- \sqsubseteq
- \sqsupseteq
- \subsetneqq
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- \thickapprox
- \triangledown
- \triangleleft
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- \twoheadleftarrow
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- \underbrace
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- \underrightarrow
- \underleftrightarrow
- \underparen
- \updownarrow
- \Updownarrow
- \upharpoonleft
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- \upuparrows
- \varepsilon
- \varnothing
- \varprojlim
- \varsubsetneq
- \varsubsetneqq
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## \phantom - Tex Command

\phantom - Used to create space.

## DESCRIPTION

\phantom command draws space. The box created by \phantom has width, height and depth equal to its argument. In other words, \phantom creates horizontal and vertical space equal to that of its argument, even though the argument isn't visible.

- \Gamma^{\phantom{i}j}_{i\phantom{j}k} $ \Gamma^{\phantom{i}j}_{i\phantom{j}k} $
- \matrix{1&-1\cr 2&\phantom{-}3} $ \matrix{1&-1\cr 2&\phantom{-}3} $

Get certified by completing the course

Next: \phantom & \vphantom & \hphantom , Up: Spacing in math mode [ Contents ][ Index ]

## 16.6.1 \smash

Typeset subformula as if its height and depth were zero.

In this example the exponential is so tall that without the \smash command LaTeX would separate its line from the line above it, and the uneven line spacing might be unsightly.

(Because of the \smash the printed expression could run into the line above so you may want to wait until the final version of the document to make such adjustments.)

This pictures the effect of \smash by using \fbox to surround the box that LaTeX will put on the line. The \blackbar command makes a bar extending from 10 points below the baseline to 20 points above.

The first box that LaTeX places is 20 points high and 10 points deep. But the second box is treated by LaTeX as having zero height and zero depth, despite that the ink printed on the page still extends well above and below the line.

The \smash command appears often in mathematics to adjust the size of an element that surrounds a subformula. Here the first radical extends below the baseline while the second lies just on the baseline.

Note the use of \vphantom to give the \sqrt command an argument with the height of the \sum (see \phantom & \vphantom & \hphantom ).

While most often used in mathematics, the \smash command can appear in other contexts. However, it doesn’t change into horizontal mode. So if it starts a paragraph then you should first put a \leavevmode , as in the bottom line below.

The package mathtools has operators that provide even finer control over smashing a subformula box.

## About LaTeX and MathML support in Pages, Numbers, and Keynote

Learn about using LaTeX and MathML with Pages, Numbers, and Keynote, and view some sample equations.

## LaTeX commands

Latex packages, mathml elements, mathml attributes, sample equations.

Pages, Numbers, and Keynote support LaTeX and MathML, and support all LaTeX commands that can be converted to MathML with blahtex . Additional supported LaTeX extensions are listed below.

iBooks Author also supports LaTeX and MathML, but the app is no longer updated or available.

Learn more about transitioning from iBooks Author to Pages

Pages, Numbers, and Keynote on iCloud.com don't support LaTeX and MathML.

LaTeX generally requires equations to be enclosed in math mode commands such as the examples listed below. To make equation authoring easier, the equation editors in Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author are in math mode by default, so it isn't necessary to add math mode commands to your equations.

\begin{math} … \end{math}

\begin{displaymath} … \end{displaymath}

\begin{equation} … \end{equation}

$ … $

$$ … $$

\( … \)

\[ … \]

To add text to an equation that inherits the paragraph style, use \text{…}. Nesting equations inside \text{...} is not supported.

In math mode, blahtex doesn't fully support non-ASCII unicode characters, but it does accept the full unicode character set in text mode. For more information on specific characters, such as the copyright symbol and characters with accent marks, see the blahtex Manual , 2.22.

Supported LaTeX commands (extensions to blahtex) and MathML elements and attributes are listed below.

## LaTeX commands that Pages, Numbers, and Keynote support

Latex commands that pages, numbers, and keynote doesn't support, latex commands that ibooks author supports, latex commands that ibooks author doesn't support.

These LaTeX packages aren't supported:

Use the tables below to learn about the MathML elements that Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author support.

## Supported MathML elements

Partially supported mathml elements, not supported mathml elements.

Use the tables below to learn about the MathML attributes that Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author support.

## Supported MathML attributes

These MathML attributes are supported by Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author:

## Partially supported MathML attributes

These MathML attributes are partially supported by Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author:

## Not supported MathML attributes

\textstyle differentiates between inline and display equations.

## Common equation elements

Long form arithmetic.

Pages, Numbers, Keynote, and iBooks Author don't support LaTeX for long division and remainders. To work with long division and remainders, you must use MathML.

Add mathematical equations in Pages:

Add mathematical equations in Numbers:

Add mathematical equations in Keynote:

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## [Tex/LaTex] phantom and parentheses in multiline equation

brackets equations

When I have a multiline equation enclosed by parentheses, that I want to split, why is the brackets command inside the phantom one, not recognised by the right bracket command? For example, if I have

I get an error, but if I just use left. instead of \phantom{left(} , everything is fine (I'm trying to make some space to simulate the parentheses)

## Best Answer

There are \big , \Big , \bigg , and \Bigg :

## Related Solutions

[tex/latex] splitting an equation inside curly brackets onto 2 lines without using \big.

You don't need \left and \right ; your input has several mistakes, by the way: for instance \split{equation} means nothing (and it will produce errors). Also “mean” should be treated as an operator. I don't think the parentheses () around the set are useful.

With split you can choose the alignment point; here's a possibility:

## [Tex/LaTex] List of equations, including equation contents and caption

Since you want a cheat sheet, I'd recommend the extract package. With a slightly different MWE:

you get an original document of:

and an extracted document of:

This also works with your original \caption command.

## Related Question

- [Tex/LaTex] Can’t generate png with Error: Erroneous nesting of equation structures
- [Tex/LaTex] Multiline equation inside a split environment

## Reset Password

Base colors, colors via dvipsnames option, chemical equations with mhchem.

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

1 asked Sep 22, 2016 at 16:03 remjg 2,476 2 19 32 1 Wrapping the phantoms in \mathopen might help (untested) - daleif Sep 22, 2016 at 16:05 As a workaround for now, I use the \mathcolor command defined in this answer to question 85035 to display white text... - remjg Sep 22, 2016 at 16:05 @daleif it works perfectly !

brackets - phantom and parentheses in multiline equation - TeX - LaTeX Stack Exchange phantom and parentheses in multiline equation Ask Question Asked 9 years, 1 month ago Modified 5 years, 9 months ago Viewed 5k times 2

1 asked Oct 24, 2010 at 21:03 Matt Leifer 3,940 2 18 10 5 Could you mark the answer that answers your question best as solution, please? - Golar Ramblar Nov 18, 2021 at 22:08 Add a comment 3 Answers Sorted by: 398 You already found the answer, but let me expand a bit. There are three phantom commands. They each take a single argument.

LaTeX's features for typesetting mathematics make it a compelling choice for writing technical documents. This article shows the most basic commands needed to get started with writing maths using LaTeX. Writing basic equations in LaTeX is straightforward, for example:

Here LaTeX will put a blank line that is the correct width for the answer, but will not show that answer. \begin {displaymath} \int x^2\,dx=\mbox {\underline {$\phantom { (1/3)x^3+C}$}} \end {displaymath} The \vphantom variant produces an invisible box with the same vertical size as subformula, the same height and depth, but having zero width.

Short Math Guide for LATEX, version 1.09 (2002-03-22) 3 2.2. Automatic numbering and cross-referencing To get an auto-numbered equa-tion, use the equation environment; to assign a label for cross-referencing, use the \label

Aligning several equations. If there are several equations that you need to align vertically, the align environment will do it: \begin{ align* } 2x - 5y & = 8 \\ 3x + 9y & = -12 \end{ align* } Open this amsmath fragment in Overleaf. The following graphic shows the output produced by the LaTeX code: Usually the binary operators ( >, < and =) are ...

The \vphantom {a^3} causes the first \sqrt to have inside it a box of the same height as the second \sqrt, so LaTeX makes the bars align. These commands often are combined with \smash. See \smash, for another example of the use of \vphantom.

Public Domain Software http://latexref.xyz/_005cphantom-_0026-_005cvphantom-_0026-_005chphantom.html \pageref \flushbottom \AtBeginDocument \AtEndDocument \centering \cline \frame \framebox (picture) \graphpaper

LaTeX is a powerful tool to typeset math. Embed formulas in your text by surrounding them with dollar signs $. The equation environment is used to typeset one formula. The align environment will align formulas at the ampersand & symbol. Single formulas must be seperated with two backslashes \\.

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#2 Dr Transport Science Advisor Insights Author Gold Member 2,610 780

math-mode× spacing× Catalogue online LaTeX editor with autocompletion, highlighting and 400 math symbols. Export (png, jpg, gif, svg, pdf) and save & share with note system

Synopsis: \smash { subformula Typeset subformula as if its height and depth were zero. In this example the exponential is so tall that without the \smash command LaTeX would separate its line from the line above it, and the uneven line spacing might be unsightly.

\begin {equation} \begin {split} f = & \left ( \frac {a} {b} + \right. \\ & \left. \vphantom {\frac {a} {b}} c \right) + d \end {split} \end {equation} (I recommend \vphantom over \phantom in this case because \phantom adds horizontal space that you don't need.)

MathML attributes Sample equations Pages, Numbers, and Keynote support LaTeX and MathML, and support all LaTeX commands that can be converted to MathML with blahtex. Additional supported LaTeX extensions are listed below. iBooks Author also supports LaTeX and MathML, but the app is no longer updated or available.

Inline Compressed HTML LaTeX equation editor that creates graphical equations (gif, png, swf, pdf, emf). Produces code for directly embedding equations into HTML websites, forums or blogs. Images may also be dragged into other applications like Word. Open source and XHTML compliant.

1 Brilliant, thanks a lot.

[Tex/LaTex] phantom and parentheses in multiline equation. brackets equations. When I have a multiline equation enclosed by parentheses, ... [Tex/LaTex] List of equations, including equation contents and caption. Since you want a cheat sheet, I'd recommend the extract package. With a slightly different MWE:

Register your account to save your own LaTeX codes. To increase your number of codes per week, make a donation. Online LaTeX equation editor, free LaTeX equation generator (png, pdf, mathML, ...), generate your complex mathematical expressions with simple clicks.

21 For example, the switch \ifv@ can be split into two switches for the height and depth: \ifv@ht@ and \ifv@dp@. The the macros are changed in this way (unchanged macros are commented): plain TeX